industrual/commercial/agricultural/residential building and facilities.Bricks,concrete,wood...KXD tell you "No"!Because we have better option for you-Pre-Engineered Structural Steel/Metal Building!
Now you are definitely gonna ask-what are the advantages of pre-engineered steel/metal structure building or why should I choose steel/metal building for my building projects?Tell you what! Statistics has shown that steel building has been a trendy and reliable construction solution whether for commercial,industrial or residential applications.Compared with the tradtional R.C.C(reinforced concrete) building,pre-engineered steel structure building is 30% cost-saving,60% less construction time required,40% less weight and nearly 80% resell value while meeting up the customer's construction request at the same time.
Feel kind of interesting!Before my formal introduction on the steel structure/metal building system,please go for the following photo to get a outline of what a prefab steel structure building is!
Introduction on KXD's prefab steel structure/metal building system
Pprefab structures for industrial and commercial functions are a steel structures built over a structural concept of primary members, secondary members, roof and wall sheeting connected to each other and various other building components. These buildings can be provided with different structural and non-structural additions such as skylights, wall lights, turbo vents, ridge ventilators, louvers, roof monitors, doors & windows, trusses, mezzanine floors, fascias, canopies, crane systems, insulation etc., based on the customer's requirements. All the steel buildings are custom designed to be lighter in weight and high in strength. Thus steel building designs have become more flexible, durable and adaptable over the last four decades which has made steel one of the preferred materials for building construction.
PMB/PEB's are ideal for non-residential and wide-span low-rise buildings. Some of the key advantages of PMB/PEB include economical in cost, factory controlled quality, durability, longevity, flexibility in expansion, environmentally friendly, faster installation, etc.
Pre-engineered metal buildings are used for diverse applications such as factories, warehouses, showrooms, supermarkets, aircraft hangars, metro stations, offices, shopping malls, schools, hospitals, community buildings and many more.
As a leading PMB/PEB manufacturer, KXD provides the complete service of engineering, fabrication and erection thus ensuring better quality control at every stage of the process.
Pre-engineered metal buildings consists of following components:
- Primary Members / Main Frames
- Secondary Members / Cold Formed Members
- Roof & Wall Panels
- Accessories, Buyouts, Crane System, Mezzanine System, Insulation, etc.
- Sandwich Panels
PRIMARY MEMBERS / MAIN FRAMES
Primary members are the main load carrying and support members of a pre-engineered building. The main frame members include columns, rafters and other supporting members
. The shape and size of these members vary based on the application and requirements. The frame is erected by bolting the end plates of connecting sections together. All the steel sections and welded plate members are designed in accordance with the applicable sections as per the latest international codes and standards such as GB and IS to meet all the customer specifications.
LEAN TO (L-TO)
SPACE SAVER (SV)
L CANOPY (L-CAN)
BUTTERFLY CANOPY (T-CAN)
RIGID FRAME (RF)
BEAM & COLUMN (BC-1)
BEAM & COLUMN (BC-2)
BEAM & COLUMN (BC-3)
MULTI SPAN (MS)
Crane Beams are support members for different type of cranes and allow for unobstructed movement of cranes along the building length. These crane beams are supported on the columns of a building.
Standard mezzanine system consists of profiled steel deck, mezzanine joists, built-up beams and intermediate support columns. Built-up beams span in lateral directions and mezzanine joists in longitudinal directions bolted to the top flange of beams. A concrete slab is cast on the steel deck as a finished surface. Steel checkered plates can also be used as top surface.
KXD Truss System is one of the company's most popular and highly economical products. It is a rigid structure, ideal for large span roof systems, multiple bay buildings and as mezzanine floor framing. These structures are individually designed to meet the specific requirements of each building and are fabricated utilizing high quality efficient fixtures. The system allows for easy erection as all connections are field bolted except for field splices on very large spans, no site welding is required.
There is possibility of significant reduction in clearances and building heights by running service pipes/ducts through the trusses. Foundation costs are also reduced due to fewer columns being required to support larger spans.
FASCIAS AND CANOPIES
KXD provides various types of fascias specially designed as per the customer's requirements. These can be either vertical, horizontal or with curved sheeting to enhance the architectural look of the building. Wall canopies at eaves, end wall, over doors and windows are also provided based on the requirement.
SECONDARY MEMBERS / COLD FORMED MEMBERS
Secondary structural framing refers to purlins, girts, eave struts, wind bracing, flange bracing, base angles, clips and other miscellaneous structural parts.
Purlins, girts and eave struts are cold formed steel members which have a minimum yield strength of 345 MPa (50,000 psi) and will conform to the physical specifications of GB/ISO/CE or equivalent.
PURLINS & GIRTS
Purlins and girts are roll formed Z sections, 200 mm deep with 64 mm flanges shall have a 16 mm stiffening lip formed at 45˚ to the flange. They are supported on columns, rafters or building walls. They can be lapped and nested at the supports which creates a continuous beam configuration. They are placed on the roof and perimeter of the building. Hence they serve as a support to the roof sheeting and wall cladding.
C-Sections are 200 mm deep with a 100 mm flange. The flanges are perpendicular to the web and have a 24 mm stiffening lip.
Eave struts are 200 mm deep with a 104 mm wide top flange, a 118 mm wide bottom flange, both are formed parallel to the roof slope. Each flange has a 24 mm stiffener lip. These are located along the sidewall; at the intersection of the planes of the roof and wall. It is constructed from cold formed C-Section and is rolled to suit the roof slope. This member transmits longitudinal wind force on the end walls from roof brace rods to wall brace rods.
OPEN WEB JOISTS
These are long span load carrying trusses suitable for direct support of floors and roof decks in the buildings. The system consists of crimped angles welded to the top and bottom chords.
Cable bracing is made of extra high strength seven strand cable and can be designed to accommodate any length to ensure the stability of the building against forces in the longitudinal and lateral direction due to wind, cranes and earthquakes. It is made of a cable which is forged into a rod terminal and this arrangement is then fixed on a structure using a hill side washer, nut washer and a nut.
ROOF & WALL PANELS
KXD ROOF (KR) & KXD WALL (KW) (AVAILABLE IN ALL REGIONS)
KXD standard steel panels are 0.3,0.4 0.5 mm or 0.6 mm thick and have a minimum yield strength of 345 MPa. Steel panels are hot dipped and galvanized with zinc or zinc-aluminium coating. Galvanized materials conform to GB for 275 grams per square meter according to GB.
KXD panels are prepared with a multilayered coating system to ensure long life and optimum coating adherence. The base material is pretreated, before applying a corrosion resistant primer and top coat. The combined thickness of the painted film is 25 microns on the front side and 12 microns on the reverse side.
KXD RIB / ROOF (KR)
KXD Roof profile is strong and cost effective and was developed specifically for roofing applications. The bearing leg design permits easier installation and maintenance, supports thicker layers of insulation and allows easier curvature for a visually appealing finish.Coverage Area:
1000 mm Rib Depth:25
KXD WALL (KW)
KXD Wall is a cost effective, partially concealed fastener panel with a sculptured valley shape between the major ribs for a superior architectural look for external walls.Coverage Area:
1000 mmRib Depth:15
KXD Deck Panels are used in high rise buildings, office buildings and mezzanine floors in industrial buildings and warehouses. These decks can be used as a permanent shuttering to support the wet concrete and help in creating composite slabs and floor beams. The continuous flange stiffeners and deep embossments increase the load carrying capacities. They provide for a stable and rigid working platform without any need of propping. These panels are roll formed from hot dip galvanized coils of 345 Mpa with thickness starting from 0.6 mm to 1.2 mm.
KIRBY STANDARD COLORS
Arctic White, Caribbean Blue, Desert Beige, Sun Gold, Autumn Green, Galvalume/AluZinc
INSULATED SANDWICH PANELS
The main purpose of insulating a building is to reduce the heat transfer coming through the ceilings and openings.
Polyurethane InsulationKXD's installation Solution:
This is a panel manufactured by the press injection method to produce a polyurethane core between exterior steel facings. It can be used on the roof and wall as claddings.
Fiber Glass Insulation
This can be used on the roof or wall and can be retrofitted on existing buildings. The fiber glass insulation is fire safe and CFC free and does not emit toxic smoke. It is laminated to the top and bottom steel facings with special chemical glue hence completely filling the insulation cavity.
KXD Roof Insulated Panel (KRIP)
KXD Roof Insulated Panels (KRIP) is one of the premier roofing systems which uses the KXD Roof (KR) profile for a durable, low maintenance and weather-tight roofing system. The large panel size reduces the number of joints, and the high corrugation overlap joint reduced water leakage.
Kirby Wall Insulated Panel (KWIP)
KXD Wall Insulated Panels (KWIP) uses the KXD Wall (KW) cladding profile for a speedy and cost-efficient solution for external walls where higher insulation performance is required. This profile is most suitable to overshadow the fasteners. It can be applied as external walls for commercial and industrial applications.
For any new potential metal building buyer,KXD's turnkey solution pack would make your project just like a local market purchase experience with so much ease because you just need to fill out follwoing form and KXD will do the following work for you!
For any potential steel structure/metal building buyer,installation would definitely a major concern to them.KXD's professional installation team would take off the burden of our clients since KXD is able to send our installation members to local construction site to help building up the steel structure building.Our record of successful case has proven the success of our mode!
Steel Structure/Metal Building Applications
A:Industrial warehouse/workshop plants
B:Mutl-story residential apartment/office1) Description of Multi-storey steel building system
The primary structural elements of a multi-storey steel building, namely the columns and floor beams
, should be laid out with a view to minimising both the cost of the steelwork and the time required for its erection. For any given structure a layout can be determined that optimises the combined beam and column content of the structure, but in most cases functional and architectural considerations have to be taken into account, which mitigates against the design of optimal bay sizes. Consultation between the architect and the engineer in the early stages of planning could help to prevent an uneconomical layout having to be adopted.
The third structural element, after the columns and beams, is the stabilising system necessary to provide lateral support to the building, i.e.to supply stability under gravity loading and to resist the overturning effects of wind
. Obviously, the taller the building the more important the bracing system becomes and in very tall structures the provision of adequate lateral support does in fact become the dominant consideration.Lateral stability
may be provided within the steel structure itself by means of bracing, or moment-resisting beam-column connections or steel shearwalls, or it may be imparted by other building elements, e.g. reinforced concrete service towers, or concrete or brick in-fill panels in the walls. In all cases the stabilising elements may be located within the plan dimensions of the building or in the perimeter walls, or they may even be external to the building.
If a building is to incorporate the stabilising system within the steel structure, the framework can be of the two-way braced, one-way braced and one-way-rigid, or two-way rigid type.
Triangulated bracing is usually cheaper than a stiff moment-resisting frame and should be used wherever access problems do not arise, i.e. where door, window or service openings are not required.
In addition to vertical bracing systems it is necessary to provide stiffness within the plane of each floor, both to maintain the squareness of the floor in plan and to transmit the wind loading on the exterior of the building to the vertical bracing.
Stabilising systems - examples
Figs 7.1 to 7.5 give examples of various bracing systems that can be employed to provide stability to multi-storey buildings. The examples are of general application and illustrate the basic principles involved in such systems. The vertical steel bracing is shown as the X-type for simplicity, but could equally well be chevron bracing, knee bracing or someother type
(the features of the various bracing types are discussed more fully in Chapter 11). The floors are shown as steel-braced, but in practice the bracing function could be furnished by the concrete floor slab, in which case only nominal squaring-up
steel bracing would be required. The systems are applicable to buildings of almost any number of storeys.Two-way steel bracing
The two-way steel braced system shown in Fig 7.1 is one of the most efficient in terms of stiffness, speed of erection and economy. All beam-to-column connections are of the simple (i.e. hinged) type, so labour input in both columns and beams is minimised and erection can proceed quickly. Being fully steel-framed, the structure is self-supporting and can be completely erected without having to be integrated with other trades. The only drawback is the presence of the braced panels in the exterior walls, which might interfere with the window pattern, but in the light of the current trend towards exposed steelwork
the windows could be set back and the bracing system be expressed boldly as an architectural feature. In very long buildings it would be necessary to provide one or more interior sets of bracing, as shown dotted.One-way steel bracing
The stiff frame shown in the alternative end elevation of Fig 7.1 is another method of providing transverse stiffness to the structure. All of the transverse frames not only the end ones, would be stiff, but the building would still rely for longitudinal stiffness on the two sets of one-way bracing in the sides. This would be a more costly arrangement than the two-way braced solution, but would remove the drawbacks of the triangulated bracing.
It is more suited to long buildings and has the further advantage that the main (i.e.transverse) floor beams could be shallower, because of their continuity, with consequent reduction in storey height.It must be emphasised, however, that on purely economic grounds triangulated bracing is very much more cost-effective than a moment frame, both in shop fabrication and in erection.Central service core
Where a building is fairly compact in plan and does not have a great length-to-width ratio,a central service core is a very efficient means of providing stability, as shown in Fig 7.2. e Elevation Floor framing
In steel-framed buildings the floor framing system almost invariably consists of a series of main and secondary beams
at right angles to each other in plan, with the secondary beams framing into or passing over the tops of the main beams. The floor slab or deck is then carried on top of the secondary beams.
Except where stiff-frame action is required, as discussed under Stabilising Systems above, the main beams are usually simply-supported spans between the columns. If the secondary beams have their top flanges flush with the tops of the main beams they would be framed into the webs of the main beams and would thus also be simply-supported; this would produce a floor grid of minimum depth and would result in a reduction in storey height. However, underfloor services running at right angles to the main beams would then have to pass through holes formed in the webs of these beams, or else be routed
below the main beams, which would increase the floor depth.
If the secondary beams pass over the tops of the main beams, however, they would no longer be simply-supported but be continuous, significantly reducing the mass and especially deflection. The routing of services in both rectangular directions in plan would be facilitated by reason of the space available above the main beams.
The two beam framing systems referred to above represent conventional practice as used on the great majority of small to medium-sized buildings. The beams are ofstraightforward construction and employ standard end connections and are thus easy and cheap to fabricate. A number of non-standard options are available and are worth considering for larger buildings where a high level of repetition of components would justify their use. These are discussed below.
Main beams span between columns and can therefore not normally be made continuous.Continuity can, however, be achieved by replacing the beam by a pair of closely-spaced twin beams passing on each side of the column, as shown in Fig 7.6.
Because of their continuity the main beams can now be designed plastically, for acombined moment on the two beams of 70 per cent or less of that for the simply-supported single beam, and at a combined mass m about equal to that of the single
beam. As regards deflection, the twin-beam system would tend to be more stiff than a single simply-supported beam of the same load capacity because of the continuity. The labour input for the twin beams would be more, but this alternative is useful when it is desired to reduce the depth of the floor (and thus the storey height), or on long spans where the twin rolled I-sections replace a more expensive single welded plate girder.
Elevation and floor plan of a typcial multi-story steel building:
As we have discussed the structure side of a multi-story steel building,now it's time that we discuss about the wall and roof cladding and interior and exterior wall finish and decoration options:
For the panel,we have our latest foam panel,fiber cement panel.Gypsum board will be a good option for the partition wall.For the ceiling,gypsum,PVC or integrated ceiling are both OK.All these panel options are open to further decorative finish option.
Our last concern would be the EIFS(EXTERNAL INSULATION FINISHING SYSTEM).Our suggestion would be the integrated insulated decoration panel because it has perfect thermal insulation performance with various pattern and color choices.C:Commercial shop/super market/showroom
D.Agriculture farming house/garage
KXD' Turnkey solution project manageemtn-How about building up a metal building with so much ease just like you make a purchase in a local supermarket?
Now,imagine the scenario--you hit for a local supermarket with a purchase list in hand,maybe a new LEGO for your kid and a brand new cereal package for your family.Directly you head down to the sections where these items belong to because you are heck of familiar with the arrangement within the store.Even if you could not find something at once,a lovely salesmen would lead the way to the section.
Feel kind of easy,right?What if I told you that you could build a metal building with that much ease just like your supermarket shopping experience?KXD could make that happen.
For any of those who are new to but still have a request for steel building project,you just need to fill out the questionary form KXD devises(see the attached photo) with assistance from a assigned metal building specilist of KXD.The rest work is KXD which we call it "Turnkey Solution".
You may wonder what the next step is.That is-KXD will work out a preliminary design and quote for your approval.Then it is time to roll out the construction/engineering drawing for the "greenligh"t of local authority.Once it is all done,our company will work out the shop drawing for the manufacturing process.KXD also will send our clients the installation drawing for the sake of installation.
KXD has strict quality control procedure.Our worker must conform the manufacturing requirements and the quality inspector will do the insepection nearly at an interval of 15 minutes to avoid potential manufacturing flaws.For certain project,we will pre-assemble the members to assure the flowing while in practice.
After the manufacturing,KXD's loading team will load the members into the shipping container with the steel pellect loading method which I have shared in my previous article.
|(1) Simple Steel Structure Workshop|
|Main structure||Single span: L -shorter than 18m, H -lower than 6m|
|Maintenance system||Roof||Colored steel sheet with 50mm glass wool insulation|
|Wall||Colored steel sheet|
|Door||Simple steel rolling shutter (within 10m2)|
|Standard and suitable market||Africa, Middle-East, South America (no snow, wind load below 0.4kn/m2)|
(2) Standard Steel Structure Workshop
|Main structure||Single span: L -shorter than 24m, H -lower than 8m|
|Maintenance system||Roof||Colored steel sheet with 50mm glass wool insulation|
|Wall||Colored steel sheet or 50mm EPS sandwich board|
|Door||Wind resistance rolling door(within 15m2)|
|Window||Alu. Alloy (can use with skylight)|
|Usage||Warehouse, workshop, shopping mall, exhibition hall, super market|
|Standard and suitable market||Snow loading below 0.5kn,wind loading below 0.5kn/m2|