Multistory Steel Frame Apartment/Office Building (KXD-SSB1246)
|FOB Price:||US $35-80 / Square Meter|
|Min. Order:||200 Square Meters|
|Min. Order||FOB Price|
|200 Square Meters||US $35-80/ Square Meter|
|Transport Package:||Seaworthy Package for Steel Structure Building|
|Payment Terms:||L/C, T/T, Western Union, Money Gram|
- Office and Apartment Building with Perfect Design
- 20 Products
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- Model NO.: KXD-SSB1246
- Usage: Warehouse, Villa, Dormitories, Temporary Offices, Workshop
- Customized: Customized
- Warranty: 30-Year Limted Warranty
- Member of Engineering Team: 20
- Life Cycle: 50 Years
- Customer Service: Aftersale Service
- Engineering Tools: CAD
- Specification: SGS / ISO/BV
- HS Code: 9406000090
- Material: Steel Structure
- Certification: ISO, BV, SGS
- Size: According to Customers′ Requirement
- Color Reference: Ral
- Quality Control: Daily
- Construction Period: 60 Days
- Project Management: Turnkey Solution
- Trademark: KXD
- Origin: China
Columns in multi-storey steel frames are generally H sections, predominantly carrying axial load. When the stability of the structure is provided by cores, or discreet vertical bracing, the beams are generally designed as simply supported. The generally accepted design model is that nominally pinned connections produce nominal moments in the column, calculated by assuming that the beam
|reaction is 100 mm from the face of the column. If the reactions on the|
opposite side of the column are equal, there is no net moment. Columns on the perimeter of the structure will have an applied moment, due to the connection being on one side only. The design of columns is covered in detail in Multi-storey steel buildings. Part 4: Detailed design.
For preliminary design, it is appropriate to base the choice of column section on axial load alone, but ensure that the column is only working at 90% of its capacity, to allow for the subsequent inclusion of the nominal moments.
Although small column sections may be preferred for architectural reasons, the practical issues of connections to the floor beams should be considered. It can be difficult and costly to provide connection into the minor axis of a very small column section.
|For ease of construction, columns are usually erected in two, or sometimes three-storey sections (i.e. approximately 8 m to 12 m in length). Column sections are joined with splices, typically 300 mm to 600 mm above the floor level.|
It is common to vary the column size within the height of the building, to make efficient use of the steelwork. Although it may be convenient to align the columns on a single centroidal axis, it may be preferable to maintain the same external face, so that all edge details, and supports for cladding, are similar. The floor beams will be slightly different lengths, and the additional moment induced by offsetting the upper column section will need to be accounted for in design.
Typical splice details are shown in Figure 4.5, when a change in section has been accommodated by a division plate between the sections.
As we have discussed the structure side of a multi-story steel building,now it's time that we discuss about the wall and roof cladding and interior and exterior wall finish and decoration options:
For the panel,we have our latest foam panel,fiber cement panel.Gypsum board will be a good option for the partition wall.For the ceiling,gypsum,PVC or integrated ceiling are both OK.All these panel options are open to further decorative finish option.
|Figure 4.5 Typical splice details with bearing plate|
|If there are restrictions on space, it is possible to use countersunk bolts in the plates, or if the column sections have the same internal profile, to use internal cover plates and countersunk bolts, as shown in Figure 4.6.|
4.5.1 General arrangement of floors
Floors spanning onto the steel beams will normally be either precast concrete units, or composite floors. The supporting beams may be below the floor, with the floor bearing on the top flange (often known as "downstand" beams), or the beams may share the same zone with the floor construction, to reduce the overall depth of the zone. The available construction zone is often the determining factor when choosing a floor solution.
Beams within the floor zone are known as slim floor beams, or integrated beams. Beams may be non-composite, or composite. In composite construction shear connectors are welded to the top flange of the beam, transferring load to the concrete floor. Shear connectors are often welded on site to the top flange of the beam which has been left unpainted, through the steel decking (known as "through-deck" welding). Despite extensive testing and research that demonstrates the adequacy of through-deck welding, some authorities prefer that the studs are welded off site, and the deck must therefore be single span, or must be punctured to fit over the shear connectors. Alternatively, shear connectors can be mechanically fixed (often shot fired) through the decking to the beam.
Precast concrete units may be used for low rise frames, but composite floors are common in both low rise and high rise structures.
4.5.2 Composite beam arrangementsComposite beams support composite slabs, which span between the beams. For design of orthogonal grids, two generic beam arrangements may be considered:
- Long span secondary beams, supported by shorter span primary beams (see Figure 4.7). In this case, the beam sizes can be selected so that the primary and secondary beams are of approximately equal depth.
Cellular beams are more efficient when used for long span secondary beams, whereas fabricated beams are more efficient for long span primary beams, where shear forces are higher. It is also possible to eliminate secondary beams
by using long span composite slabs and primary beams directly attached to the columns.
Figure 4.7 Typical long span secondary beams (span of slab is indicated)
|Figure 4.8 Typical long span primary beams and shorter span secondary|
beams (span of slab is indicated)
|Integrated beams are a special case in which beams span directly between columns and secondary beams are eliminated. These beams are generally used in square grids, as illustrated in Figure 4.9. The slab is supported by the bottom flange or extended bottom plate of the beam and may be in the form of a deep composite slab or a hollow core concrete slab.|
Figure 4.9 Integrated beams or slim floor (span of slab is indicated)
The span range of various structural options in both steel and concrete are illustrated in Figure 4.10. Long span steel options generally provide for service integration for spans of over 12 m. Cellular beams and composite trusses are more efficient for long span secondary beams, whereas fabricated beams are often used for long span primary beams.
|Reinforced concrete flat slab|
|Integrated beams and deep composite slab|
|Integrated beams with precast slabs|
|Composite beams and slab|
|Fabricated beams with web openings|
|Cellular composite beams|
Figure 4.10 Span range of various structural options
|4.5.3 Features of long span construction|
Long span beams have gained in popularity in the commercial building sector
|because they offer the following benefits in design and construction:|
· Internal columns are eliminated, leading to more flexible and efficient use of internal space
· Services can be integrated within the depth of the structure, and so the floor-to-floor depth is not increased
· Fewer components are required (typically 30% fewer beams) leading to reduced construction and installation time
· Fire protection costs can be reduced due to the massivity (weight : exposed profile) of the longer span members
· For cellular beams, multiple circular ducts for services are cheaper than rectangular ducts
· Steelwork costs are not increased significantly, despite the longer spans
· Overall building costs are increased by a negligible amount (less than 1%).
4.5.4 Approximate steel quantitiesFor estimating purposes in the design of office buildings, representative weights of steel may be used for buildings of rectangular plan form. These quantities will increase significantly for non rectangular or tall buildings or for buildings with atria or complex façades.
The approximate quantities are presented in Table 4.3, and are expressed in terms of the total floor area of the building, and do not include steelwork used in the façade, atrium or roof.
4.6 Factors influencing structural arrangementsThe construction programme will be a key concern in any project, and should be considered at the same time as considering the cost of structure, the services, cladding and finishes. The structural scheme has a key influence on programme and cost, and structural solutions which can be erected safely, quickly to allow early access for the following trades.
4.6.1 Site conditionsIncreasingly, structures are constructed on 'brownfield' sites, where earlier construction has left a permanent legacy. In city centres, a solution involving fewer, although more heavily loaded foundations are often preferred, which leads to longer spans for the super-structure.
A confined site can place particular constraints on the structural scheme, for example the physical size of the elements that can be delivered and erected. Access may demand that the steel is erected directly from a delivery lorry in the road. This may prevent working at certain times in the day making the erection programme relatively inflexible. A mobile erection platform provides temporary storage and speeds up the installation process, as shown in Figure 2.2.
4.6.2 CranesThe number of cranes on a project will be dominated by:
· The site footprint - whether a sensible coverage of the building site can be achieved, including off-loading.
- The size of the project - which dictates whether more than one crane is economic. In city centre projects, tower cranes are often located in a lift shaft or atrium.
As an indication, an erection rate of between 20 and 30 pieces per day is a reasonable installation rate. With average weights of the components, this equates to approximately 10 to 12 tonnes of steel per day. There is therefore benefit in using fewer, long span beams. Where possible, prefabrication reduces the number of items to be lifted, and increases erection rates.
4.6.3 Installation of composite floorsComposite floors comprise profiled steel decking, which is lifted onto the steelwork in bundles and usually man-handled into position. Safety nets are erected immediately after the steelwork and before the decking placement. Steelwork already erected at upper levels does not prevent decking being lifted and placed, although decking is usually placed as the steelwork is erected. Completed floors may be used as a safe working platform for subsequent erection of steelwork, and allow other works to proceed at lower levels, as shown in Figure 4.11. For this reason, the upper floor in any group of floors (usually three floor levels) is often concreted first.
Our last concern would be the EIFS(EXTERNAL INSULATION FINISHING SYSTEM).Our suggestion would be the integrated insulated decoration panel because it has perfect thermal insulation performance with various pattern and color choices.
You are so welcome to send us inquiries!
|Opinions||1)We can supply all kinds of steel structures, steel building, metal building, modular house, steel frame for warehouse, workshop, garage etc, steel beams, other riveting and welding parts|
|2)We can also make and develop new parts according to customers' drawings and detailed dimensions|
|1)Size: MOQ is 100m2, width X length X eave height, roof slope|
|2)Type: Single slope, double slope, muti slope; Single span, double-span, Multi-span, single floor, double floors|
|3) Base: Cement and steel foundation bolts|
|4) Column and beam: Material Q345(S355JR)or Q235(S235JR) steel, all bolts connection! Straight cross-section or Variable cross-section|
|5) Bracing: X-type or V-type or other type bracing made from angle, round pipe, etc|
|6) C or z purlin: Size from C120~C320, Z100~Z200|
|7) Roof and wall panel: Single colorfull corrugated steel sheet0.326~0.8mm thick,(1150mm wide), or sandwich panel with EPS, ROCK WOOL, PU etc insulation thickness around 50mm~100mm|
|8)Accessories: Semi-transparent skylight belts, Ventilators, down pipe, Glavanized gutter, etc|
|9)Surface: Two lays of Anti-rust Painting|
|10) Packing: Main steel frame without packing load in 40'OT, roof and wall panel load in 40'HQ|
|Design Parameters||If you need we design for you, pls supply us the following parameter together with detail size|
|1)Live load on roof(KN/M2)|
|3)Snow load (KG/M2)|
|4)Earthquake load if have|
5) Demands for doors and windows
|6)Crane (if have) ,Crane span, crane lift height, max lift capacity, max wheel pressure and min wheelpressure!|